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Medical toxicology deals with the assessment and treatment of a wide variety of problems including acute or chronic poisoning, adverse drug reactions (ADRs), drug overdoses, envenomations, substance abuse, industrial accidents, and other chemical exposures. Medical toxicology focuses mainly on medicinal toxicology concerned with the diagnosis, management, and prevention of poisoning and other adverse effects due to medications, occupational and environmental toxicants, and biological agents. Clinical toxicology deals with the study of evaluating clinical data on the adverse effects of the prescribed drugs. Both clinical toxicology and medical toxicology are inter-related to each other and also to pharmacology. This session discusses more clinical and medical toxicology.
Food and Nutritional Toxicology deal with the study of the presence of chemicals in food that produces adverse health effects. It studies and evaluates the impact on human health of food containing environmental contaminants or natural toxicants, food additives, the migration of chemicals from packaging materials into foods, and the persistence of feed and food contaminants in food products. Food and Nutritional Toxicology also deals with the studies on the adverse effects of nutrient excesses, the impact of contaminants on nutrient utilization, metabolism of food toxicants, and the relationship of the body's biologic defense mechanisms to such toxicants. This session discusses more food and nutritional toxicology.
Environmental toxicology is a multidisciplinary field of science concerned with the study of the harmful effects of various chemical, biological and physical agents on living organisms, uncontrolled use of pesticides. There are many sources of environmental toxicity that can lead to the presence of toxicants in our food, water, and air. These sources include organic and inorganic pollutants, pesticides and biological agents, all of which can have harmful effects on living organisms. There can be so-called point sources of pollution, for instance, the drains, effluents release from industries, rubber from car tires containing numerous chemicals and heavy metals that are spread in the environment are also harmful to human life. This session discusses more about environmental toxicology.
The science of toxicology has many applications. One of these is concerned with Industrial and Occupational Toxicology. Occupational or industrial toxicology deals with the study of the application of the principles and methodology of toxicology to understand and manage chemical and biological hazards encountered at work. The aim of the occupational toxicology is to prevent adverse health effects in workers that arise from exposures in their work environment. One of these relates to exposure of people to noxious or hazardous agents during the course of their work. Field of occupational toxicology is the study of the adverse effects of agents that may be encountered by workers during the course of their employment. This session discusses more industrial and occupational toxicology.
Immunotoxicology deals with the study of immune dysfunction resulting from exposure of an organism to a xenobiotic. The immune dysfunction may take the form of immunosuppression or alternatively, allergy, autoimmunity or any number of inflammatory-based diseases or pathologies. Because the immune system plays a critical role in host resistance to disease as well as in normal homeostasis of an organism, identification of immunotoxic risk is significant in the protection of human, animal and wildlife health. Cardiotoxicity is defined as “toxicity that affects the heart”. It is a condition when there is damage to the heart muscle. As a result of cardiotoxicity, the heart may not be able to pump blood throughout the body as well. This may be due to chemotherapy drugs, or other medications which may be taking to control the disease. This session discusses more Immunotoxicology & Cardiotoxicity.
Of the known carcinogenic agents such as viruses, ultraviolet, ionizing radiations, and chemicals appear to be of major importance in the induction of human cancers. The known chemical carcinogens include a wide range of structures and their ultimate forms are electrophilic reactants; in most cases, these reactants arise through metabolism in vivo. Carcinogenesis by chemicals is a multistage process. Complete carcinogens have both initiating and promoting activities, but the ratios of these two activities for various chemicals may differ greatly. This knowledge of the mechanisms of carcinogens by chemicals provides a useful basis for approaches to the prevention of human cancer. This session discusses more of chemical carcinogenesis.
The methods for toxicity testing should be done by a manufacturer prior to and during the process of submitting a petition to register a pesticide. Codified toxicologic evaluation of potential pesticides has been a requirement in many nations across the world. The testing requirements and guidelines continue to evolve based on new science. The current testing processes include the young animal and young human as well as aspects of testing that are needed to fill the data gaps to better ensure the protection of infants and children. The current testing guidelines can be found in Pesticide Assessment Guidelines issued by the Environmental Protection Agency. Data, including those derived from toxicity testing, crop residue analyses, environmental fate testing, and ecotoxicology testing, are generated by the manufacturer of a pesticide to meet the mandatory requirements of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) for pesticide registration. This session discusses more toxicity testing methods.
Molecular and Biochemical Toxicology deal with biochemical toxicology of organic substances and their relevant methodologies. It deals with the studies on the ongoing quest to define biochemical, cellular, and molecular events induced by toxicants at the cellular and organismic levels. Now, as the principles and methods of molecular and cellular biology, as well as genomic sciences, play an ever-increasing role in mechanistic toxicology, significant changes have been noticed. It further evaluates underlying biochemical, molecular, and cellular mechanisms through which toxicants produce their adverse effects. Toxicological issues are covered from the molecule to the cell to the organ level. This session further discusses more molecular and biochemical toxicology.
Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology is a complex study dealing with three components such as parent, placenta, and fetus and continuous changes that occur in each. Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology addresses a broad range of topics including nanoparticles and radiation, gases and solvents, smoking, alcohol, and drugs of abuse, food additives, nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals, and metals, among others. It provides a complete, integrated source of information on the key risk stages during reproduction and development. With a special focus on placental toxicity, the study includes reproductive and developmental toxicity in domestic animals, fish, and wildlife. It also deals with diverse and unique in vitro and in vivo toxicity models for reproductive and developmental toxicity testing in a user-friendly format that assists in comparative analysis. This session further discusses more reproductive and developmental toxicology.
Genetic Toxicology is the study of genetic damage that results in alterations to heritable information. The study includes the broad definition of agents that cause genotoxicity; the mechanisms by which damage occurs and the cellular responses to that damage. It is a complex science because there are a number of different types of genome damage, which arise through a diversity of mechanisms. Given the critical nature of genetic toxicity evaluation in the assessment of chemical safety, consideration of the accuracy of genotoxicity tests is extremely important. For safety assessment, tests need a high degree of sensitivity, providing confidence that genotoxins, hence, potential carcinogens will be detected, and that exposure to them can be limited. This session discusses more genetic toxicology.
Forensic Toxicology deals with the study of toxicology and other disciplines such as analytical chemistry, pharmacology, clinical chemistry to aid medical or legal investigation of the death, poisoning, and drug use. The primary concern for forensic toxicology is not the legal outcome of the toxicological investigation or the technology utilized but rather the obtainment and interpretation of results. A toxicological analysis can be done with various kinds of samples. Forensic Toxicology deals with the study of the investigation, in particular, any physical symptoms recorded, and any evidence collected at a crime scene that may narrow the search, such as pill bottles, powders, trace residue, and any available chemicals. Forensic toxicology evaluates toxic substances present, and in what concentrations, and the probable effect of those chemicals on the person. This session discusses more forensic toxicology.
Pharmacokinetics deals with the study of the time course of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. Clinical pharmacokinetics is the application of pharmacokinetic principles to the safe and effective therapeutic management of drugs in an individual patient. Primary goals of clinical pharmacokinetics include enhancing efficacy and decreasing toxicity of a patient's drug therapy. The development of strong correlations between drug concentrations and their pharmacologic responses has enabled clinicians to apply pharmacokinetic principles to actual patient situations. A drug's effect is often related to its concentration at the site of action so to monitor effectively. Receptor sites of drugs are generally inaccessible to our observations or are widely distributed in the body, and therefore direct measurement of drug concentrations at these sites is not practical. This session discusses more Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics.
Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Development focus on high-quality clinical pharmacology studies in drug development which are primarily performed in early development phases in healthy subjects. It further focuses on the understanding of the processes involved in drug development including both pre-clinical and clinical phases of development; and its importance of pharmacoeconomics and pharmaco-vigilance in clinical pharmacology and the regulatory aspects of the pharmaceutical industry. The methodology includes animal models and in vivo techniques used in pre-clinical development; ethical considerations in both pre-clinical and clinical drug development; clinical trial methodology includes assessing safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy in patients. This session discusses more clinical pharmacology and drug development.
Pharmacotherapeutics is a branch of Pharmacology and deals with the study of the therapeutic uses and effects of drugs and as well the study of beneficial and adverse effects of drugs. Pharmacotherapeutics studies the effects on the body of the usage of drugs. It focuses on four phases such as absorption, the movement of the drug from the site of administration into the bloodstream. Distribution is the movement of the drug through the bloodstream and into the cells. Metabolism is the changing of the drug into another substance or substances that are metabolites. And excretion is the removal of the drug or its metabolites from the body. This session discusses more pharmacotherapeutics.
Pharmacogenetics is concerned with the studies of inherited genetic differences in drug metabolic pathways which can affect individual responses to drugs, both in terms of therapeutic effect as well as adverse effects. The term pharmacogenetics is often used interchangeably with the term pharmacogenomics which also investigates the role of acquired and inherited genetic differences in relation to drug response and drug behavior through a systematic examination of genes, gene products, and inter- and intra-individual variation in gene expression and function.
Pharmacogenetics is the study of germline mutations such as single-nucleotide polymorphisms affecting genes coding for liver enzymes responsible for drug deposition and pharmacokinetics; whereas pharmacogenomics deals with somatic mutations in tumoral DNA leading to alteration in drug response like KRAS mutations in patients treated with anti-Her1 biologics. This session discusses more pharmacogenetics.
Immunopharmacology deals with the studies of pharmacology and immunology combined together. The field is now diverse and interspersed with other related sub-disciplines, its two parent disciplines remain immunology and pharmacology. It focuses on drugs acting on the immune system and the pharmacological actions of substances derived from the immune system. In order to have a sharper focus, immunopharmacology has been divided according to clinical and pragmatic criteria such as immunosubstituion, immunosuppression, antiallergic substances and immunostimulation gives the heterogeneous material a tighter structure than would any classification according to an origin, chemical structure or mechanism of action. This session discusses more immunopharmacology.
Molecular Pharmacology deals with the studies of pharmacology with regards to the molecular basis of pharmacology. Molecular pharmacology studies the molecular study of pharmaceuticals and natural compounds used in the treatment of disease. Further molecular pharmacology also focuses on diseases on a molecular basis with the goal of developing pharmacologically active agents which could be used to address diseases. Molecular Pharmacology also focuses its studies on molecular signaling, mechanism of drug action, chemical biology, drug discovery, and structure of the drug-receptor complex, systems analysis of drug action, and drug transport and metabolism. Molecular Pharmacology also deals and interacts with the applications of innovative structural biology, biochemistry, biophysics, physiology, genetics, and molecular biology to basic pharmacological problems that provide mechanistic insights into pharmacology and toxicology.
Chemical Food safety deals with the practice of handling chemicals in a safe manner, minimizing the hazard to the public and personal health. It describes handling, preparation, and Storage of food in ways that prevent foodborne illness. It involves understanding the physical, chemical, and toxicological hazards of chemicals. Chemical Food Safety is achieved by undertaking all activities involving chemicals in such a way as to ensure the safety of human health and the environment. It covers all chemicals, natural and manufactured, and the full range of exposure situations from the natural presence of chemicals in the environment to their extraction or synthesis, industrial production, transport use and disposal. It has many scientific and technical components. This Session deals with the Preventive Controls on Chemical Food.